Read the following passage carefully and answer questions from 7 to 12 :
The last great war, which nearly shook the foundations of the modern world, had little
impact on Indian literature beyond aggravating the popular revulsion against violence and
adding to the growing disillusionment with the ‘humane pretensions’ of the Western World.
This was eloquently voiced in Tagore’s later poems and his last testament, Crisis in Civilisation.
The Indian intelligentsia was in a state of moral dilemma. On the one hand, it could not help
sympathising with England’s dogged courage in the hour of peril, with the Russians fighting
with their backs to the wall against the ruthless Nazi hordes, and with China groaning under the
heel of Japanese militarism; on the other hand, their own country was practically under military
occupation of their own soil, and an Indian army under Subhas Bose was trying from the
opposite camp to liberate their country. No creative impulse could issue from such confusion of
loyalties. One would imagine that the achievement of Indian independence in 1947, which came
in the wake of the Allies’ victory and was followed by the collapse of colonialism in the
neighbouring countries of South-East Asia, would have released an upsurge of creative energy.
No doubt it did, but unfortunately it was soon submerged in the great agony of partition, with its
inhuman slaughter of the innocents and the uprooting of millions of people from their homeland,
followed by the martyrdom of Mahatma Gandhi. These tragedies, along with Pakistan’s
invasion of Kashmir and its later atrocities in Bangladesh, did indeed provoke a poignant
writing, particularly in the languages of the regions most affected, Bengali, Hindi, Kashmiri,
Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu. But poignant or passionate writing does not by itself make great
literature. What reserves of enthusiasm and confidence survived these disasters have been
mainly absorbed in the task of national reconstruction and economic development. Great
literature has always emerged out of chains of convulsions. Indian literature is richer today in
volume, range and variety than it ever was in the past.
Based on the passage answer the following questions from 7 to 12 :
What was the aftermath that survived tragedies in Kashmir and Bangladesh ?