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Answer Question Nos. 43 to 48 based on the passage :

The distinction that modern artists and art critics make between the arts, on the one hand, and crafts, on the other, was foreign to classical antiquity. Both arts and crafts were regarded by the ancient Greeks as �productions according to rule� and both were classified as techne, which can be translated as �organized knowledge and procedure applied for the purpose of producing a specific preconceived result.� This concept runs directly counter to the deeply ingrained insight of modern aesthetic thought that art cannot be reduced to rule, cannot be produced in accordance with pre-established concepts or rules, and cannot be evaluated using a set of rules reducible to a formula.

The Greek concept, with its attendant notion that the appropriate criterion for judging excellence in both the arts and the crafts was the �perfection� of their production, predominated until the middle of the eighteenth century, when the French aesthetician Charles Batteux heralded the idea that what distinguishes the arts from the crafts and the sciences is the arts� production of beauty. This idea lasted until the beginning of the present century when some critics argued that �beauty� was a highly ambiguous term, far too broad and indefinite for the purpose of defining or evaluating art, while, on the other hand, many artists expressly repudiated �beauty� because of its too narrow associations with an outmoded view that art was beautiful and therefore should not be evaluated or analyzed, but should merely be appreciated. Since 1900, a large number of definitions of art have emerged, each of them covering a sector of accepted creative and critical practice but none of them, apparently, are applicable to the whole of what is accepted as art by the art world.

43. According to the ancient Greeks, arts and crafts were :


Maharashtra SET Paper 1 fully solved - jan2018